The Best Countries for LGBTQ+ Travel in 2021

Amy Pritchett • May 2021

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If you’re part of the LGBTQ+ community, some countries might be better than others for your next adventure.

There have been major changes in laws and norms surrounding the issue of same-sex marriage and rights of LGBT people around the world. However public opinion on the acceptance of homosexuality in society remains divded by country, region and economic development.

We have scientifically proven that Sweden is the best country for LGBTQ+ travel, as attitudes and laws are gay-friendly, beating out other great countries in Europe and around the world.

In our groundbreaking new study, we found the most gay-friendly destinations and ranked the best countries for LGBTQ+ travel. We took into account the following factors from popular destinations across the globe: society acceptance towards homosexuality, sexual activity rights, civil union rights, marriage rights, adoption rights, military service rights, anti-discimination and gender identity laws.

Table of Contents

Map

Main Findings

KEY: Legal in the country  Illegal in the country    Some laws in favor and against  Ambiguous laws

Overall Rank Flag Country Total Score Society Acceptance (%) Sexual Activity Rights Civil Union Rights Marriage Rights Adoption Rights Military Service Rights Anti-Discrimination Laws Gender Identity Laws
1 Sweden 98.2 94%
2 Netherlands 97.6 92%
3 Spain 96.7 89%
4 France 95.8 86%
5 United Kingdom 95.7 86%
6 Germany 95.6 86%
7 Canada 95.5 85%
8 Australia 94.3 81%
9 Brazil 90.1 67%
10 Argentina 87.8 76%
11 South Africa 86.2 54%
12 Italy 82.5 75%
13 Israel 79.1 47%
14 United States 76.6 72%
15 Czech Republic 67.7 59%
16 Mexico 65.7 69%
17 Greece 64.4 48%
18 Poland 59.1 47%
19 Slovakia 58.2 44%
20 Philippines 56.9 73%
21 Japan 55.4 68
22 Hungary 54.7 49%
23 Bulgaria 54.6 32%
24 Lithuania 53.4 28%
25 India 51.1 37%
26 Ukraine 44.2 14%
27 South Korea 38.2 44%
28 Turkey 27.5 25%
29 Russia 19.2 14%
30 Lebanon 18.9 13%
31 Indonesia 17.7 9%
32 Kenya 4.2 14%
33 Tunisia 2.7 9%
34 Nigeria 2.1 7%

The 20 Best Countries for LGBTQ+ Travel in 2021

1. Sweden

sweden flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 98.2

Society Acceptance: 94%

Sexual Activity Rights:  Yes Legal since 1944. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights:  Registered partnerships from 1995 to 2009 (existing partnerships are still recognized).

Marriage Rights:  Legal since 2009.

Adoption Rights:  Legal since 2003.

Military Service Rights:  Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  

2. Netherlands

netherlands

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 97.6

Society Acceptance: 92%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1811. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Registered partnership since 1998.

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2001.

Adoption Rights: Legal since 2001.

Military Service Rights: Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Since 2014, sex changes do not require sterilisation and surgery.

3. Spain

spain flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 96.7

Society Acceptance: 89%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1979. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: De facto unions in Catalonia (1998), Aragon (1999), Navarre (2000), Castile-La Mancha (2000), Valencia (2001), the Balearic Islands (2001), Madrid (2001), Asturias (2002), Castile and León (2002), Andalusia (2002), the Canary Islands (2003), Extremadura (2003), Basque Country (2003), Cantabria (2005), Galicia (2008), La Rioja (2010), and Murcia (2018), and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998) and Melilla (2008).

Marriage Rights:  Legal since 2005.

Adoption Rights: Legal since 2005.

Military Service Rights: Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Andalusia, Madrid, Murcia and Valencia.

Gender Identity Laws:  Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender.

4. France

france flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 95.8

Society Acceptance: 86%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal nationwide since 1791. Legal in Savoy since 1792. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Civil solidarity pact since 1999.

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2013.

Adoption Rights: Includes transgender people.

Military Service Rights:  Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Since 2017, sex changes no longer requires sterilisation and surgery.

5. United Kingdom

united kingdom flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 95.7

Society Acceptance: 86%

Sexual Activity Rights: Female always legal. Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982.+ UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Civil partnerships since 2005.

Marriage Rights:  Legal in England and Wales, and Scotland since 2014, and Northern Ireland since 2020.

Adoption Rights:  Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013.

Military Service Rights:  Since 2000; Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Under the Gender Recognition Act 2004.

6. Germany

germany flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 95.6

Society Acceptance: 86%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal in East Germany since 1968. Legal in West Germany since 1969. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Registered life partnerships from 2001 to 2017 (existing partnerships and new foreign partnerships still recognised.

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2017.

Adoption Rights: Stepchild adoption since 2005; successive adoption since 2013; joint adoption legal since 2017.

Military Service Rights:  Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Gender change is legal; surgery not required.

7. Canada

canada flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 95.5

Society Acceptance: 85%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1969. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights:   Domestic partnerships in Nova Scotia (2001); Civil unions in Quebec (2002); Adult interdependent relationships in Alberta (2003); Common-law relationships in Manitoba (2004).

Marriage Rights: Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003, nationwide since 2005.

Adoption Rights: Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2011.

Military Service Rights: Since 1992; Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals has been illegal in Manitoba and Ontario since 2015, and Vancouver and Nova Scotia since 2018.

Gender Identity Laws:  Transgender people can change their gender and name without completion of medical intervention and human rights protections explicitly include gender identity or expression within all of Canada since 2017.

8. Australia

australia flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 94.3

Society Acceptance: 81%

Sexual Activity Rights: Always legal for women. Male legal in some states and territories since 1975, nationwide since 1997. Tasmania was the last state to legalise male homosexuality. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Unregistered cohabitation nationally since 2009; Domestic partnerships in Tasmania (2004), South Australia (2007), Victoria (2008), New South Wales (2010), and Queensland (2012); Civil unions in the Australian Capital Territory (2012).

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2017.

Adoption Rights: Legal nationwide since 2018.

Military Service Rights: Gay men and lesbians since 1992; Transgender and intersex people since 2010.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws: (However both NSW and QLD legally require sex reassignment surgery to change sex on a birth certificate).

9. Brazil

brazil flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 90.1

Society Acceptance: 67%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1831. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: “Stable unions” legal in some states since 2004; all rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011.

Marriage Rights: Legal in some states since 2012, nationwide since 2013.

Adoption Rights: Legal since 2010.

Military Service Rights: Since 1969.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999.

Gender Identity Laws:  Transgender people can change their legal gender and name before a notary without the need of surgeries or judicial order since 2018.

10. Argentina

argentina-flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 87.8

Society Acceptance: 76%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1887. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Civil unions in Buenos Aires (2003), Río Negro Province (2003), Villa Carlos Paz (2007) and Río Cuarto (2009). Cohabitation unions nationwide since 2015.

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2010.

Adoption Rights: Legal since 2010.

Military Service Rights:  Since 2009.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Legal protection in some cities; pending nationwide.Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2010.

Gender Identity Laws: Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial order since 2012.

11. South Africa

south africa flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 86.2

Society Acceptance: 54%

Sexual Activity Rights: Male legal since 1998. Female always legal. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; same-sex marriage since 2006.

Marriage Rights: Legal since 2006.

Adoption Rights: Legal since 2002.

Military Service Rights: Since 1998.

Anti-Discrimination Laws: Constitution bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.

12. Italy

italy flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 82.5

Society Acceptance: 75%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1890. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Civil unions since 2016.

Marriage Rights:  One same-sex marriage was recognized in 2017.

Adoption Rights:  Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation since 2016.

Military Service Rights:  

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans some anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender, sterilisation not required.

13. Israel

israel flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 79.1

Society Acceptance: 47%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1963 (de facto), 1988 (de jure). + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Unregistered cohabitation since 1994.

Marriage Rights:  Foreign same-sex marriages are recognized and recorded in the population registry.

Adoption Rights:  Since 2008.

Military Service Rights:  Since 1993; Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws: Almost full recognition of gender’s ID without a surgery or medical intervention (Excluding changing gender and name in birth certificate); equal employment opportunity law bars discrimination based on gender identity.

14. United States

united states flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 76.6

Society Acceptance: 72%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Domestic partnerships in California (1999), the District of Columbia (2002), Maine (2004), Washington (2007), Maryland (2008), Oregon (2008), Nevada (2009) and Wisconsin (2009). Civil unions in Vermont (2000), Connecticut (2005), New Jersey (2007), New Hampshire (2008), Illinois (2011), Rhode Island (2011), Delaware (2012), Hawaii (2012) and Colorado (2013).

Marriage Rights: Legal in some states since 2004, nationwide since 2015.

Adoption Rights: Legal in some states since 1993, nationwide since 2016.

Military Service Rights:  Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals have been allowed to serve openly in the U.S. military since 2011, following the repeal of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy. Transgender people have been allowed to serve openly since 2021. Transvestites are currently banned from the military since 2012. Most openly Intersex people may be banned from the military under the Armed Forces ban of “hermaphrodites”.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is prohibited nationwide since 2020. More extensive protections exist in 23 states, DC, and some municipalities. Conversion therapy for minors is banned in 20 states, DC, and some municipalities. Sexual orientation is covered by the federal hate crime law since 2009. 

Gender Identity Laws:   Gender change is legal, under varying conditions, in 48 states + DC. Nonbinary gender markers are available, under varying circumstances, in 25 states + DC. Employment discrimination on the basis of gender identity is prohibited nationwide since 2020. More extensive protections exist in 22 states, DC, and some municipalities. Gender identity is covered by the federal hate crime law since 2009.

15. Czech Republic

czech republic flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 67.7

Society Acceptance: 59%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia). + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Registered partnerships since 2006.

Marriage Rights:  Pending.

Adoption Rights:  LGBT individuals in a registered partnership may adopt; stepchild and joint adoption pending.

Military Service Rights:  Includes transgender people.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws: Legal recognition after sex reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation). 

16. Mexico

mexico flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 65.7

Society Acceptance: 69%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1871. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Civil unions in Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007), Colima (between 2013 and 2016), Campeche (2013), Jalisco (between 2014 and 2018), Michoacán (2015) and Tlaxcala (2017).

Marriage Rights:  Legal in Mexico City (2010), Quintana Roo (2012), Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Nayarit (2015), Jalisco (2016), Campeche (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), Baja California (2017), Nuevo León (2019), Aguascalientes (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019), Hidalgo (2019), Baja California Sur (2019), Oaxaca (2019), and Tlaxcala (2020). All states are obliged to recognise same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal. The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states, but as state laws were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the courts.

Adoption Rights:  Legal in Mexico City (2010), Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Campeche (2016), Veracruz (2016), Baja California (2017), Querétaro (2017), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), San Luis Potosí (2019) and Hidalgo (2019).

Military Service Rights:   Ambiguous, LGBT soldiers are in a “legal limbo”. Officially, there is no law or policy preventing them from serving, and applicants are not questioned on the subject. In practice, however, outed LGBT soldiers are subject to severe harassment and are often discharged.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City (2008), Michoacán (2017), Nayarit (2017), Coahuila (2018), Hidalgo (2019), San Luis Potosí (2019), Colima (2019), Baja California (2019), Oaxaca (2019), Tlaxcala (2019), Chihuahua (2019), Sonora (2020), Jalisco (2020), Quintana Roo (2020), and the city of Guadalajara.

17. Greece

greece flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 64.4

Society Acceptance: 48%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1951. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights: Cohabitation agreements since 2015.

Marriage Rights:  

Adoption Rights:  Same-sex couples in a civil partnership may become foster parents. LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples.

Military Service Rights:  

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Under the Legal Gender Recognition Act 2017.

18. Poland

poland flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 59.1

Society Acceptance: 47%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1932. + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights:  Unregistered cohabitation since 2012; registered partnership proposed 2019.

Marriage Rights:  Constitutional ban since 1997 (Article 18 of the Constitution is generally interpreted as limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples).

Adoption Rights:  LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples.

Military Service Rights:  

Anti-Discrimination Laws: 

Gender Identity Laws:  

19. Slovakia

slovakia flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 58.2

Society Acceptance: 44%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia). + UN decl. sign.

Civil Union Rights:   Some limited rights for unregistered cohabiting same-sex couples since 2018; Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018.

Marriage Rights:  Constitutional ban since 2014.

Adoption Rights:   LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples.

Military Service Rights:  

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  Bans all anti-gay discrimination.

Gender Identity Laws:  Requires sterilisation for change.

20. Philippines

philippines flag

LGBTQ+ Travel Index Score: 56.9

Society Acceptance: 73%

Sexual Activity Rights: Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country).

Civil Union Rights:  Pending.

Marriage Rights:  Pending.

Adoption Rights:  LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples.

Military Service Rights:  Since 2009.

Anti-Discrimination Laws:  In certain cities and provinces, including Cebu City, Quezon City, and Davao City; National bill pending.

Gender Identity Laws:  

Advice for LGBTQ+ Travelers

Please find some advice for LGBTQ+ tourists traveling abroad from the Foreign & Commonwealth Office:

1. Research

Find information on laws and social attitudes towards homosexuality and gender idenity in the country and area you’re visiting.

2. Avoid public displays of affection where there are low levels of tolerance.

In some countries homosexuality and/or homosexual relations are illegal and subject to penalties. Where relations are legal, the levels of a tolerance and acceptance within society may vary hugely. For this reason, it may be best to avoid over public displays of affection so as to not attract unwanted attention.

3. Take the same precautions you would at home.

Even when you are traveling in an LGBT friendly country, it’s a good idea to follow the same precautions you would at home.

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4. Take sensible precautions if you meet other LGBT people.

Find out about the local situation. In countries where attitudes towards LGBT people are hostile,  there have been right-wing groups and police known to carry out entrapment campaigns.

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5. Ignore unwelcome remarks or attention and move to a safe place.

You may receive unwelcome attention or unwelcome remarks. This depends on the area you’re in and you may want to report it to the authorities.

6. Exercise more discretion in rural areas.

In some countries, you are more likely to experience difficulties while in rural areas, so it’s best to exercise more discretion.

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7. Check that your hotel will make bookings from same sex couples before you go.

Some hotels, especially in rural areas, may refuse bookings from same sex couples.

8. Research local LGBT-inclusive charities, organisations and travel agents.

If you need advice or care while under duress overseas, these groups can help.

Methodology

In order to determine the most gay-friendly countries, MyDatingAdviser.com compared 34 countries around the globe. We looked at eight key dimensions: 1) Society Acceptance, 2) Sexual Activity Rights, 3) Civil Union Rights, 4) Marriage Rights, 5) Adoption Rights, 6) Military Service Rights; and finally, the existence of 7) Anti-Discrimination Laws and 8) Gender Identity Laws.

These dimensions are listed below with their corresponding points. Full, half, or no points have been given for each dimension depending on the laws in the given country.

  • Full points given if there are gay-friendly laws in existence.
  • Half points given if there are some laws in favor and some laws against.
  • Half points given if the laws are ambiguous.
  • No points given if the laws do not support the gay community.

The points have been combined to create a 100-point scale, with a score of 100 representing the most LGBTQ-friendly conditions in a country.

We determined each city’s weighted average across all dimensions to calculate its overall score. These resulting scores were used to rank-order our sample.

Society Acceptance – Total Points: 30

  • The points were given as follows for the society’s acceptance of homosexuality: The % for each country was taken from the total points to determine this score.
  • Note: This metric measures the percentage of the population that is accepting of homosexuality. Pew Research Center survey conducted among 38,426 people in 34 countries from May 13 to Oct. 2, 2019.

Sexual Activity Rights – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for same-sex sexual activity:
    • Legal to have same-sex sexual activity: (~10 Points)
    • Some legal laws and some illegal laws: (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws: Half Weight (~5 Points)
    • Illegal to have same-sex sexual activity: (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures if same-sex sexual activity is legal in a given country.

Civil Union Rights – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for same-sex unions:
    • Legal to have same-sex civil unions (~10 Points)
    • Some legal laws and some illegal laws (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • Illegal to have same-sex civil unions (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures if there is recognition of same-sex civil unions in a given country.

Marriage Rights – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for same-sex marriage:
    • Legal to marry (~10 Points)
    • Some legal laws and some illegal laws (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • Illegal to marry (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures if same-sex marriage is legal in a given country.

Adoption – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for adoption rights:
    • Legal to adopt (~10 Points)
    • Some legal laws and some illegal laws (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • Illegal to adopt (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures the adoption rights in a given country for same-sex couples.

Military Service – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for military service rights:
    • Legal to serve in the military (~10 Points)
    • Some legal laws and some illegal laws (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • Illegal to serve in the military (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures the rights of LGBTQ individuals to serve in the given country’s military.

Anti-Discrimination Laws – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for anti-discrimination laws:
    • There are gender anti-discrimination laws (~10 Points)
    • Some laws in favor and some laws against (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • No anti-discrimination laws (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures that anti-discrimination laws are in place.

 

Gender Identity Laws – Total Points: 10

  • The points were given as follows for gender identity laws:
    • There are gender identity laws (~10 Points)
    • Some laws in favor and some laws against (~5 Points)
    • Ambiguous laws (~5 Points)
    • No gender identity laws (~0 Points)
  • Note: This metric measures that gender identity/ expression laws are in place.po

Sources

Data used to create this ranking were collected from the following sources:

  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection, and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Ley 3.736”. Legislatura de la Provincia de Río Negro.
  • “Ley 26.994 Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación”. InfoLEG.
  • “Ley 26.618″. InfoLEG.
  • Smink, Veronica (28 February 2009). “Argentina: abren paso a gays en FF.AA”. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 
  • “Ley 26.791”. InfoLEG.
  • Ruchansky, Emilio (10 May 2012). “Una norma de vanguardia”. Página/12.
  • Global Attitudes Survey, Pew Research Center (Spring 2019)
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • Chang, Charis (8 December 2017). “Same-sex marriage is now legal in Australia”. news.com.au. 
  • “Australia Ends a Prohibition On Homosexuals in Military”. query.nytimes.com. 24 November 1992.
  • Sweijs, Tim. “LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion”. hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies.
  • “Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013”. Aph.gov.au.
  • “Trans forced divorce laws to stay for now”. Buzzfeed.com.
  • “Spouse the new word”. News.com.au.
  • “Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013”. Aph.gov.au.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Article 46(1), Bulgaria – Constitution”. Servat.unibe.ch.
  • “Bulgaria”. Travel.state.gov.
  • “ILGA-Europe” (PDF). ilga-europe.org.
  • “Bulgarian Parliament approves with 93-23 vote (and 23 abstentions) amendments to the Protection from Discrimination Act to include protection against discrimination of trans people”. The Sofia Globe.
  • “Bulgarian Parliament Votes on Anti-Discrimination Law Amendments”. Novinite.com.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Brazilian go-ahead for gay unions”. 5 March 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  • “Notícias STF :: STF – Supremo Tribunal image”. www.stf.jus.br.
  • “CNJ obriga cartórios de todo o país a celebrar casamento entre gays – 14/05/2013 – Cotidiano”. Folha de S.Paulo.
  • “CNJ obriga cartórios a celebrar casamento entre homossexuais – Brasil”. Estadão.
  • “Casal homossexual pode adotar criança, decide STJ”. www.athosgls.com.br.
  • Patricia Silva Gadelha (March 2006). “A prática da pederastia é crime militar”. Jus Navigandi.
  • “STF permite criminalização da homofobia e da transfobia”. G1.globo.com.
  • Expresso da Notícia (13 January 2006). “Justiça autoriza alteração no registro de transexual que trocou de sexo”.
  • Expresso da Notícia (25 December 2005). “Justica autoriza mudança de sexo em documentos” (in Portuguese). Jus Brasil.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Criminal Code (R.S., 1985, c. C-46), Section 159, Subsection (1)”. Department of Justice Canada. 
  • “LOI CONCERNANT CERTAINES CONDITIONS DE FOND DU MARIAGE CIVIL”. Lois-laws.justice.gc.ca.
  • “Canadian Armed Forces”. The Canadian Lesbian & Gay Archives. 
  • Sweijs, Tim. “LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion”. hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies.
  • “Northwest Territories Human Rights Act, S.N.W.T. 2002, c.18. Section 5”.
  • Ontario passes law to protect transgender people”. CBC News. 
  • Services, Ministry of Citizens. “Change Your Personal Information – Province of British Columbia”. Www2.gov.bc.ca.
  • “Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency | Province of Manitoba”. Province of Manitoba – Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Portál veřejné správy”. Portal.gov.cz.
  • Ochranu manželství jako svazku muže a ženy vláda odmítla. Šanci mají sňatky pro všechny. 10 July 2018. ČT24.
  • I registrovaní homosexuálové mohou adoptovat děti, rozhodl Ústavní soud. (in Czech) idnes.cz. Mladá fronta DNES. Published on 16 June 2016.
  • Lazarová, Daniela (25 June 2018). “Government backs same-sex marriage bill, but decisive battle looms in parliament”. Czech Radio.
  • Sweijs, Tim. “LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion”. hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies.
  • “ILGA-Europe”. ilga-europe.org.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité | Legifrance”. www.legifrance.gouv.fr.
  • Erlanger, Steven (18 May 2013). “Hollande Signs French Gay Marriage Law”. The New York Times.
  • “France”. Travel.state.gov.
  • Sweijs, Tim. “LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion”. hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies.
  • “ILGA-Europe”. Ilga-europe.org
  • “France scraps transgender sterilisation”. BBC News.
  • “State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition”. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
  • “glbtq >> social sciences >> Berlin”. Glbtq.com.
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